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19: Risk Management

19: Risk Management

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Risk management plays a crucial role in organizations, allowing them to identify, assess, and mitigate potential risks. This lecture will delve into various aspects of risk management, including identifying and assessing organizational risks, developing risk management strategies, contingency planning and risk mitigation, monitoring and evaluating risk controls, and decision-making in risky situations.

19.1 Identifying and Assessing Organizational Risks

Before an organization can effectively manage risks, it must first identify and assess them. This process involves recognizing potential threats and vulnerabilities that may impact the organization’s objectives. Risk identification can be conducted through various methods such as brainstorming sessions, surveys, interviews, and historical data analysis. Once risks are identified, they need to be assessed in terms of their likelihood and potential impact. This assessment helps prioritize risks and allocate appropriate resources for risk mitigation.

19.2 Developing Risk Management Strategies

Once risks are identified and assessed, organizations must develop comprehensive risk management strategies. These strategies aim to minimize the potential negative impacts of risks and capitalize on potential opportunities. Effective risk management strategies involve a combination of risk avoidance, risk reduction, risk transfer, and risk acceptance. Organizations should consider their risk appetite and tolerance levels when formulating these strategies, as they determine the extent to which risks are accepted or mitigated.

19.3 Contingency Planning and Risk Mitigation

Contingency planning is a critical component of risk management. It involves developing alternative courses of action to address potential risks and their consequences. Contingency plans should be proactive, detailing specific actions to be taken in the event of identified risks materializing. Risk mitigation techniques aim to reduce the likelihood or impact of risks. This may involve implementing control measures, improving processes, training staff, or diversifying resources. Regular testing and updating of contingency plans and risk mitigation strategies are essential to ensure their effectiveness.

19.4 Monitoring and Evaluating Risk Controls

Monitoring and evaluating risk controls are necessary to ensure ongoing effectiveness and to identify any emerging risks. Organizations should establish mechanisms to track and measure the performance of risk controls. This includes regular assessments, audits, and reviews. By monitoring risk controls, organizations can identify any deviations from expected outcomes and take corrective actions promptly. Continuous evaluation and improvement of risk controls enable organizations to adapt to changing risk landscapes and ensure the effectiveness of their risk management efforts.

19.5 Decision-Making in Risky Situations

In risky situations, decision-making plays a crucial role in managing and responding to risks. Effective decision-making requires a balance between risk and reward, considering both the potential benefits and potential consequences. Organizations should establish clear decision-making processes that consider risk assessments, available information, stakeholder perspectives, and ethical considerations. Decision-makers should also be equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to evaluate risks objectively and make informed choices that align with the organization’s goals and values.

Please note that the content provided in this lecture is for educational purposes only. For specific risk management practices and implementation, it is recommended to consult with professionals and refer to relevant sources.


  1. Institute of Risk Management (IRM). (2020). AIRMIC, IRM & Alarm: A Structured Approach to Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) and the Requirements of ISO 31000. Retrieved from
  2. Project Management Institute (PMI). (2017). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) – Sixth Edition. Project Management Institute.
  3. Rothaermel, F. T. (2017). Strategic Management. McGraw-Hill Education.
  4. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC). (2018). PwC’s Risk Management Framework. Retrieved from